Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in Poland, followed by amphetamines, MDMA/ecstasy and cocaine. Drug use is mainly concentrated among young adults, with those aged 25-34 years being more likely than younger or older adults to have been reported using an illicit substance during the last year. In general, males are more likely than females to report the use of drugs. In 2014, one in ten young adults aged 15-34 years reported using cannabis in the last year. In surveys conducted between 2006 and 2014 the use of cannabis increased. Lifetime use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among 15 to 64-year-olds was low in 2014 at 2.2 %. Krakow participates in the Europe-wide annual wastewater campaigns undertaken by the Sewage Analysis Core Group Europe (SCORE). This study provides data on drug use at a community level, based on the levels of different illicit drugs and their metabolites in sources of wastewater. In 2016, amphetamine was the most prevalent target drug residue measured in wastewater. The levels of metabolites of methamphetamine, cocaine and MDMA detected in wastewater were low, indicating limited use of these substances in Krakow.
Poland is both a transit country for drug trafficking and the source of production of synthetic drugs for Western European markets. Poland is one of the major amphetamine manufacturers in the European market. The manufacturing process and distribution of the drugs are handled by organised crime syndicates which establish, equip, and supply clandestine laboratories. The police have reported changes in the modus operandi of criminal groups, which have started to divide amphetamine manufacture into stages. Consequently, these stages can take place in various locations. In 2014, the police dismantled 19 laboratories, 15 that produced amphetamine, two for methamphetamine and two for mephedrone.
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